Categorizing Fiction: What’s Each Part All About?

Fiction is a conglomerate of information. It can’t just tell you something. It has to serenade you, pull you in…perhaps romance you a bit. Bottom line: fiction needs to suspend your disbelief.

So, how do we, as writers, go about this?

There are five main ways to categorize fiction. Each way adds to the whole of the story, creating a richer, fuller world.

  1. Narration. This tells you what happened. It’s the meaningful actions that characters do. Narration can sometimes include meaning movements as well.
  2. Description. This deals with details, often sensory details (taste, touch, smell, hear, see). Description includes giving details about people, places, actions, gestures, speaking, etc. It tells “how” something is done, whereas narration tells “what” occurred.
  3. Exposition. This is information that is told by the author/narrator to readers. Exposition has a bad rep (the whole “telling” vs. “showing” concept), but it is necessary in fiction because it provides context, meaning, history, etc.
  4. Dialogue. Spoken words.
  5. Internal. This includes the thoughts and feelings, both immediate and long term, of a character(s). The internal category gets inside the character, and involves a character’s internal reactions to something. For instance, two characters might see the same event, but their internal reactions will be different.

Narration and dialogue speed up the pace of a novel, while exposition, description, and internal slow down the pace. A big part of the reason why all five of these ways are important to include in a novel is because there are times in a story where you want the reader to go fast, and times where you want the reader to go slow.

Some common mistakes:

  • Description. It can be easy to bunch description together. For instance, describing every aspect of a character all at once (hair, eyes, body type, clothing, posture, personality, etc.). When you bunch your description, you (1) don’t include it anywhere else in the novel and (2) create an imbalance. You want to reveal details when they’re important. When you use the right details, at the right time, the story feels organic, connected.
  • Exposition. Just as too much exposition is a mistake, so is too little. There are some things/information you need to know to understand and grow attached to the character. For example, if a story begins in October, maybe the protagonist’s parents died four months ago, and that piece of information would help explain why the protagonist has a drug problem, and create some understanding, maybe even sympathy.
  • Internal. Don’t let your writing get too internal. It can be easy to get lost in a character’s mind, but that can result in readers falling out of the story. Also, sometimes showing or telling is enough. If you write, “She curled up into a ball and cried.” You don’t need to also say, “She was sad.” Readers already know she’s sad because of her actions.

Which of the five ways are you the best at? Which ones should you focus on improving?

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